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December 21 2010

19:00

#NiemanLeaks big takeaway? Even post-WikiLeaks, context still key

The Nieman Foundation’s Secrecy and Journalism conference last week set out to tackle a lot of questions, but perhaps none were as big as the central one posed to attendees: What should journalism’s role be in this new environment of distributed leakers, massive databases, and citizen reporters.

The answer most of the panels seemed to reach, however, might be a comforting one: Provide the context and texture behind the data, while vetting sources for accuracy and agenda. Not too different from what journalist have always been supposed to do — but now the tools, sources, and audience have come together to allow for a much richer, deeper form of reporting than has ever been possible.

We’ve summed up and posted video and liveblogs from each of the conference sessions. But after sifting through it all, here are my five key takeaways from the discussion.

Data needs context

While Julian Assange initially relied on radical transparency as a tool to spur change, he quickly learned that crafting a narrative around the raw documents produced a much more dramatic result. Even The New York Times’ Bill Keller acknowledged WikiLeaks has “evolved.” The new leak revolution begins looking more and more like the old guard, even as it collaborates with them.

Beware secrecy’s hard liners

The U.S.’s classification system may or may not be broken, as CJR’s Clint Hendler suggested in one panel — but it definitely has quirks, shortcomings, and fallibilities. As Danielle Brian, executive director of the Project on Government Oversight, put it: “It’s important not to take too seriously what the government says is and isn’t classified. It’s a game.”

Vet, vet, vet

Whether dealing with Deep Throat, a whistleblower, or a shadowy international band of hackers, journalists need to look at their sources critically, questioning the source’s agenda as well as ensuring the material is authentic. As Keller noted, The New York Times has treated WikiLeaks as a source, not a partner. Just because the form of the source has changed doesn’t change the fundamental relationship. And as an added warning, note Walter Pincus’ admonition that almost all of the “new” sources that approach him are simply wrong.

WikiLeaks hasn’t (yet) established a new order

With technology — particularly technology under siege — distributed tends to win over centralized, and there are already new organizations popping up all over hoping to take WikiLeaks’ mantle. The more fundamental point, however, is that similar leaks have been driving much of journalism in the United States and around the world for decades — meaning there may be less new and different about WikiLeaks than there is familiar to any good investigative journalist.

The hard work is just beginning

Despite all the opportunities and changes occurring, the basic grunt work of investigative journalism is still boring, tedious, and, particularly at the local level, critical to serving as an effective watchdog for democracy.

December 20 2010

18:00

In an age of free-flowing information, there’s still a role for journalists to provide context

The Washington Post’s venerable national security reporter Walter Pincus wants to make one thing clear: He isn’t just hopping on the WikiLeaks bandwagon.

“I used WikiLeaks before [it] became famous,” he said at last week’s secrecy in journalism conference at the Nieman Foundation. “[They] used to release one document at a time, which is the way I can handle it; I can’t handle 250,000 cables dumped in one day.” The massive amount of data now available, and the dearth of reporters tasked with examining it, was a recurring theme during the conference’s panel on gatekeepers and secrecy.

Pincus’ views on WikiLeaks largely echoed New York Times executive editor Bill Keller’s approach, which was to treat WikiLeaks and Julian Assange as any other source. But Pincus and other panelists went further, saying WikiLeaks was the effect and not the cause of a more distributed age, where information comes in many forms and the challenge for journalists is sorting through potential stories to find out what is meaningful, and then placing that meaning in context.

“Just having access to the information doesn’t mean we can understand it,” said Clint Hendler, a staff writer with the Columbia Journalism Review. “One of the key functions of a journalist used to be breaking that barrier of entry [of access]. But as the data is available [more widely], the other aspects of being a traditional journalists remain.” This means verifying the data, determining whether it’s important and contextualizing it.

Hendler said that this last role, of helping readers understand the information they’re given, was a task WikiLeaks originally held off from, preferring to be a pure conduit of raw information. That changed this past spring, when the organization released its video “Collateral Murder,” a leaked video which showed two Reuters news staff killed by a U.S. helicopters. This release, in addition to the editorializing title, included explanations of the ongoing attack as well as copies of the U.S. Rules of Engagement.

“Contrast this to what they could have done, and what they had largely done until that point: Just upload the video file,” Hendler said. “This video got a lot of attention because it was so graphic…but it also planted the seeds of a strategy in that these raw documents have a much greater impact when they’re put in context and with reporting.”

The shift has largely been overlooked as pundits debate whether WikiLeaks is “journalism,” but even Keller admitted that the organization has evolved toward journalism. That actually might be good news for traditional journalists, as even advocates for radical transparency realize that simply dumping data is rarely enough to provoke a response, particularly when there is an extreme glut of data to absorb.

Pincus said that would be true even without organizations like WikiLeaks. “There are an enormous number of public sources of information: court documents, public records that when I was young, I hate to say, we all used to read,” he said. Now, the sheer volume of information coming out of the federal government is almost impossible to track: He said when he started, there were two public hearings a day in Washington; now there are 40. “There is more news in Washington that is fit to print. My problem is, and Wikileaks highlights it, how much of it has actually been read?”

Fit to print

But beyond the sheer volume of data is the question of what is worth publishing and investigating. The panelists agreed that whether a document is marked “Secret” or not is a poor standard.

Danielle Brian, executive director of the Project on Government Oversight, often helps whistleblowers work through official government channels to correct problems before taking leaks to the public. Even then, however, the legal contortions the government uses to classify documents can take bizarre turns. She recounted one instance where she was brought to a secure room, asked a few questions, and given “temporary security clearance” to discuss some documents, clearance that was immediately revoked aftewards. “It’s important not to take too seriously what the government says is and isn’t classified,” she said. “It’s a game.”

Pincus said he had a four-part standard he used when deciding to publish information: Is it true? Is it relevant? Is there a way to give it to people? Is it something that I think the public ought to know?

He said ultimately it’s the best interest of the readers that should guide journalists, rather than relying on political pleas. “Our responsibility is to serve our readers,” he said. “We’re essentially not a national paper, we’re a local paper whose realm is national news because we’re based in Washington.”

The local connection

The emphasis on the local was shared by Maggie Mulvihill, founder and senior investigative producer at the New England Center for Investigative Reporting. She said worked like NECIR’s, which focuses on public service journalism in the New England area, is particularly important since papers like The Washington Post, New York Times, and Wall Street Journal are still keeping a spotlight on national institutions even as local watchdogs are disappearing.

“In Massachusetts, the last three Speakers of the House have been indicted,” she said. “When our leaders are up to no good, they need to know we are watching.”

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