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February 28 2012


8 common mistakes when writing for the web – and what to do about them

Image of post it notes by Anselm23 on FlickrImage by Anselm23 on Flickr

Here is a checklist covering 8 mistakes made repeatedly by first-time web writers, which I’ve put together for one of my classes. The idea is simple: if you answer ‘No’ to any of these, carry on to the accompanying guidance that follows underneath.

Checklist: are you doing the following?

  1. Getting straight to the most newsworthy, interesting piece of information in your first par?
  2. Linking to your source whenever you refer to a piece of information/fact?
  3. Linking phrases (e.g. “a report”) NOT putting in full URLs (e.g. “http://university.ac.uk/report”?
  4. Indenting quotes by using the blockquote option?
  5. Using brief pars – starting a new one for each new point?
  6. Using a literal headline that makes sense in search results and includes key words that people might be looking for, NOT general or punny headlines
  7. Splitting up your article with subheadings?
  8. Ending your post with a call to action and/or indication of what information is missing or what will happen next?

Solving it: 1. The first par

When you write the first draft of an article some people begin with a ‘warming up’ paragraph. Here’s a classic example:

“On Tuesday 14th February 2012, we went to the office of Bob Jones, for a brief discussion with a colleague…”

Ask yourself this: does your first par tell us anything new? Does it grab the reader and promise more? If it does neither then it needs rewriting.

Here are some examples of cutting to the key facts:

“A vice chancellor who sparked a political storm over his views on the social mix of degree students has been appointed England’s new university access tsar.”

Or, when your focus is an interview or guest post:

“Attempts to block the appointment of the new head of Offa, and changes to the tuition-fee regime, make higher education policy resemble an Alice-in-Wonderland world, says Mike Baker”


“A new London park, 70,000 volunteers, a home crowd spurring on British athletes… Sebastian Coe tells Emma Brockes why the 2012 Olympics are worth the money”

You can even start with the most colourful and attention-grabbing information gained in the interview, like so:

“If in February 1941 the commander of the German battlecruiser Gneisenau had decided to steam off and leave Peter Coe to his fate in an open lifeboat in the North Atlantic, the world might never have taken delivery of his son, Sebastian.”

In short, if your paragraph is warming up, chop it out entirely – and look at each paragraph to see which one is the best to start with. If your article is trying to cover more than one basic angle, consider splitting it into two separate, shorter, posts.

Don’t tell us how you got here

Another common mistake is to tell us about how you got to this point:

“At first I had this idea, and then X happened, and I realised Y, so I decided to write about what I’m about to write.”

Remember the reader doesn’t care how you got to this point – unless it’s a stunning story in itself. So cut to the chase instead:

“Here’s a list of some of the most informative and expert Twitter users in school sports”

Solving it: 2. and 3. Linking to your sources – and linking phrases, not URLs

Any mention of any information that you haven’t gathered in its raw form yourself should include a link to the source. For example:

“According to the Higher Education Funding Council for England’s official website, they define “non-completion” by…”

Should be linked to the source material as follows:

According to the Higher Education Funding Council for England, they define “non-completion” by…”

Note that I’ve also removed “official website” – for two reasons:

  • Never link to a general homepage – always deep-link to the specific page containing the information or report you’re referring to
  • The link tells us it’s according to a webpage, you don’t need to repeat that

Here are some more examples:

  • “In September 2011 The Telegraph reported that…”
  • “John Smith told one blog that he…”
  • “While almost half of students don’t know about the policy…”
  • “Jane Jones said that”
  • “The head of teaching and learning at HEFCE is Heather Fry
  • “Michael Gove voted in favour of”

The more links your work contains, the more value it holds for users – it’s just good online journalism.

Solving it: 4. Formatting text: blockquotes, bullet lists, and subheadings

Online text is easier to read the more that it is broken up. Get to know the formatting panel just above the space where you write your post (shown below).

  • Use the quotation marks button to indent quotes.
  • Use bullet lists and numbered lists to break up your post when your content suits a list.
  • Select text and use the link button (the chain icon) to make it into a link
  • Use the ‘Format’ drop-down to create subheadings (Heading 2 is best – Heading 1 is used for the headline already)
  • If you’re pasting text from elsewhere (always put it in quotes!) use the ‘eraser’ icon to strip out formatting such as font, size, colour etc. (Or better still, paste it into the HTML view so no formatting is retained)


Solving it: 5. Splitting pars after every point is made

Compare the following:

“Firms and charities are to be invited to bid for a payment-by-results scheme to try to get “Neet” teenagers into work or training, in a project launched by Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg. The £126m scheme is aimed at 55,000 teenagers in England with poor qualifications who are currently not in education, employment or training. Mr Clegg says it is about “getting them out of the living room, away from the telly and into the world of work”. Labour says it won’t help the majority.”

And this:

“Firms and charities are to be invited to bid for a payment-by-results scheme to try to get “Neet” teenagers into work or training, in a project launched by Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg.

“The £126m scheme is aimed at 55,000 teenagers in England with poor qualifications who are currently not in education, employment or training.

“Mr Clegg says it is about “getting them out of the living room, away from the telly and into the world of work”.

“Labour says it won’t help the majority.”

That’s from the BBC, an exemplar of good web writing.

Try to keep pars short, and start new ones whenever a new point is being made.

Solving it: 6. and 7. Headlines and subheadings – keep them specific and literal

Imagine what your headline looks like in the middle of a bunch of search results, or on Twitter. Imagine what it looks like to someone who has never read your site before, doesn’t know you, or your culture, jokes and phrases.

Here’s an example of a bad headline:

Useful contacts for everyone

Again, imagine this in search engine results. Twitter contacts in what field? They’re clearly not for “everyone” but something specific – in this case, the Olympics, so this is much better:

20 essential Olympics Twitter contacts

Here’s one that’s even worse:

An Update

This tells us nothing unless we are already following the blog – and even then, it doesn’t tell us whether this is interesting or merely functional. Try this instead:

Update: unemployment up; Grayling’s 3 reasons; we want your questions!

Don’t be afraid of long headlines – look at how the Daily Mail use them (extremely successfully) on their website.

Try and use key words and phrases in your headline so that search engines understand what they’re about. This, for example, is bad:

Match report

This is much better:

Rooney scores 4 in Roma Champions League clash

…Because what will people be searching for? Rooney perhaps; Champions League; Roma. They might even be searching for “hat-trick” or “video”. Think of how people search, and write your headline to answer that (assuming your content does too).


The same rules apply to subheadings. These serve two purposes: to break up your text so people can find their place in them more easily; and to help search engines understand your content.

They should therefore be mini-headlines, with keywords relevant to the pars that follow.

Solving it: 8. Ending your post – online is interactive

One of the key ways in which online journalism differs from print or broadcast is that you are not dealing with an audience: you are dealing with potential collaborators and sources who can improve your journalism with a single comment.

The traditional way of ending articles, then – implying that the story is finished and the reader can move on to what’s on page 5 – does not apply.

Instead you should try to leave room for the user to contribute in some way. Here are some examples:

  • “This is the latest in a series of interviews with Olympic sponsors. You can read the rest here, and follow future updates on our Facebook page, Twitter account, and mailing list.”
  • “Next week we’ll be interviewing Graham Gordon on his role in the process. If you have any questions you’d like us to ask, please post a comment, or email us at…”
  • “Have we missed anything? Please let us know in the comments”
  • “What we still don’t know is how much of this money reached the clubs. If you can help us find out, get in touch at…”
  • “We’ll be discussing this at our next meetup at … – sign up to attend on our Meetup page.”
  • “We’re looking for people to contribute to the blog on this issue. If you’re interested, get in touch at…”

January 10 2011



A terrorist group speak and too many Spanish news websites react just reproducing their words.

With no instant analysis.

El Pais, El Mundo, ABC, Publico and El Correo do robotic digital journalism: cut and paste journalism.

But La Vanguardia in Barcelona and 20 Minutos in Madrid add to the headline the most important fact hidden by the terrororist: ETA declares a permanent ceasefire but doesn’t renounce to the guns.

This is Journalism 101.

January 09 2011



Today’s Sunday Times Magazine shows three basic publishing rules:

1. Great illustrations produce great covers.

2. Great headlines produce great covers.

3. Great cover stories need great content.

Well, the first two rules are in this fabulous cover.

The last one, no.

The story is interesting but doesn’t deliver what the cover promised: the urban lifestyle of the British “gauche caviar” lead by an Ed Miliband owning a &1.6 million house in North London’s Hamstead Heath.

But Stephen Collins illustration shows that, yes, covers can be and must be memorable.

This one will be a collectors magazine cover.

Mine will be on eBay very soon.

So, wait and bid!

September 14 2010


Headline mishaps at Johnston Press and Newsquest titles

There’s been headline embarrassment in the past week both for Johnston Press and Newsquest. This headline filler was spotted by Jon Slattery in the Glasgow Evening Times on Friday.

Commenting on Slattery’s post Ol Peculier offers a link to another similar headline mess-up over at JP’s the Scarborough Evening News, posted on Facebook.

The use of the Atex production system at JP has been blamed for similar problems which have occured at titles since integration of the new system, such as cropped, misaligned or even missing pictures and other headline gaffs.

Earlier this year the NUJ wrote to the Press Complaints Commission claiming that a memo from Johnston Press management showed the new Atex rules “removed a number of checks for accuracy and seriously undermined the role of the editor, removing their final responsibility for the content of the paper”.

Update: We originally incorrectly linked the Glasgow Evening Times to Johnston Press, it has now been corrected as a Newsquest title.Similar Posts:

September 08 2010


September 06 2010


July 09 2010


November 20 2009


BBC News website adds SEO friendly headlines

The BBC has made changes to its news website to make its headlines more SEO friendly.

The headlines appearing on index pages are short and concise as usual, but clicking through to the story reveals a longer headline with search keywords.

For example, the index headline on the story on Google’s Chrome browser is “Google previews operating system”, which lacks search keywords.

But click on the story page, the headline becomes “Google previews Chrome open source operating system.”

And the report on the Fort Hood killings has an index headline of “Killings prompt US Army inquiry”, while the story page has the more descriptive “Gates orders Army inquiry after Fort Hood killings.”

The changes have just been introduced as older stories still have the same index and page headlines.

The short headlines were a result of length restrictions as the content was distributed on other platforms, including Ceefax.

It meant that journalists tended to have limited room for keywords.  The new BBC headlines are applying standard search engine optimization tips.

BBC News website editor Steve Herrmann explains the changes in a post on the BBC Editors blog.

The front page headlines will remain limited to between 31 and 33 characters and will continue to appear on Ceefax and Digital Text, as they do now, along with the top four paragraphs of each story.

The space constraints on those platforms mean that on the website the headlines have always been short – which, it has to be said, also has its merits, making them easy to scan and fit into lists. They will also continue to appear on mobiles.

The new longer headlines will be up to 55 characters (with spaces) and will aim to include any key words which we might expect a search engine user to type in when searching for news about that particular topic.

So the lead story on the EU presidency has an index and story page headline of “Belgian PM named as EU president.”

But the title tag of the page has a SEO friendly headline: Belgian PM Van Rompuy is named as EU president.”

The BBC News website has had journalists working on search engine optimisation for some time.

I wonder if the list of most popular stories now reflects what people are searching for on Google.

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